Jeni Klugman is director of gender and development at the World Bank Group.
02 Dec 2013
“The future is grim for us women smallholder farmers,” a group from Togo told the World we Want survey on future development goals. In keeping with local custom, they said, “Only men inherit land, although women do most of the work in fields. This keeps us dependent on men and shackles us in poverty.”
Discriminatory laws represent one of many obstacles holding back women’s economic participation. Social norms, lack of autonomy, and limited access to assets all play a part, and the costs—particularly in poor and emerging countries—are steep.
Gender gaps are pervasive across continents and sectors. Female farmers tend to have lower productivity, smaller plots, and grow less profitable crops. Female employees are more likely to work in temporary and part-time jobs, and less likely to be promoted. In Mexico and Honduras, women accounted for 70 percent of all layoffs during the global economic crisis. Across advanced economies, women earn 16 percent less than men, even in the same occupations, hold fewer senior positions, and account for fewer entrepreneurs.
Closing these gender gaps could yield enormous dividends for development. Having as many women in the labor force as men (PDF) could boost economic growth by 5 percent in the United States, 9 percent in Japan, and 34 percent in Egypt.
Our findings show that social norms are a key factor in constraining women’s time and undervaluing their potential. Housework, child-rearing, and elder care are typically considered women’s responsibility, while nearly four in 10 people globally—close to five in 10 in developing countries—agree that, when jobs are scarce, men deserve priority.
Many women also lack access to land and financial capital, as well as to financial services, technology, training, information, and social networks. Only 47 percent of women globally, for example, have opened an account at a formal financial institution compared with 55 percent of men. Legal discrimination remains extremely common. In 15 countries, women still require their husbands’ consent to work.
Overcoming inequality and empowering women at work means understanding local contexts and devising solutions to address deprivations and constraints. These will likely include:
· Eliminating legal and formal barriers to women’s work
· Engaging the private sector
· Fostering female entrepreneurship
Eradicating extreme poverty is a bold target that will demand every asset we’ve got. Tackling inequality at work and unleashing women’s full economic potential—long overdue—will almost certainly be a game-changer.
The content is taken from UNDP Global's Perspective Page.
About the Author
- ឡាវ ចំរើន ជាសហគ្រិនខ្មែរវ័យក្មេងម្នាក់ដែលបានបង្កើតអជីវកម្មបែបសិប្បកម្ម ដែលមិនត្រឹមតែបានជួយដល់ជនពិការ ថែមទាំងជួយដល់ការថែរក្សាបរិស្ថានទៀតផង។ ចំរើន បានជួលជនពិការមានជំនាញសិប្បកម្មជាបុគ្គលិក និងកែច្នៃឡើងវិញនូវសម្ភារៈដែលបានប្រើប្រាស់រួចហើយដូចជា សបកកង់ចាស់ៗ ក្រដាស់កាសែត សបកបាវស៊ីម៉ង់ ជាដើម ក្នុងដំណើរការផលិតកម្មរបស់គាត់។ តម្រូវការទីផ្សារលើផលិតផលសិប្បកម្មរបស់គាត់បច្ចុប្បន្នមានការកើនឡើងយ៉ាងខ្លាំង ទាំងពីអតិថិជនក្នុង និងក្រៅស្រុក។ ចំរើន បច្ចុប្បន្នជា អ្នកគ្រប់គ្រងផលិតកម្ម របស់ Smart Craft។ សូមស្តាប់សម្តីរបស់ ចំរើន អំពីអជីវកម្មរបស់គាត់៖ http://bit.ly/2a3vq1S Lav Chamroeun is a young Cambodian entrepreneur who started up his own handicraft business that not only helps the disable people but also save the environment. In the production process, the disable people with handicraft related skills are employed and used-materials such as old tires, newspapers, cement bags, etc. are recycled. Demands for his products now rise dramatically from both local and foreign buyers. Chamroeun is currently a Production Manager of Smart Craft. Listen to what Chamroeun says about his business http://bit.ly/2a3vq1S #YouthSkills | #YouthDay | #Youth2030 | #Klahan9 8 hours ago
- នេះជារបាយការណ៍ដំបូងបង្អស់ស្តីអំពីរបៀបវរៈអភិវឌ្ឍន៍សកលដែលបង្ហាញអំពីទូរលេខថ្មីចុងក្រោយបំផុតលើបញ្ហាភាពក្រីក្រ ភាពអត់ឃ្លាន ការអប់រំ និងអនាម័យ និងបញ្ហាផ្វេងទៀត។ ដូច្នេះហើយ ពិភពលោកទាំងមូលអាចដោះស្រាយបញ្ហាប្រឈមសកលទាំងឡាយបានក្នុងរយៈពេល ១៥ ឆ្នាំបន្ទាប់។ របាយការណ័ស្តីពីការអភិវឌ្ឍន៍ប្រកបដោយចីរភាពប្រចាំឆ្នាំ គឺជាឳកាសមួយសម្រាប់ពិនិត្យមើលអំពីចំំណុចចាប់ផ្តើមរបស់យើងទាំងអស់គ្នាក្នុងការធ្វើដំណើររួមគ្នាជាសកលនេះ - នេះជាប្រសាសន៍របស់ Thomas Gass ដែលជា Assistant-Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affairs ទៅកាន់សារព័ត៌មានក្នុងទីក្រិងញូយ៉ក។ របាយការណ័នេះបានសម្ពោធជាផ្លូវការនាថ្ងៃទី ១៩ ខែ កក្កដា ដោយ អគ្គលេខាអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ Ban Ki-moon។ The first ever progress report on the new global development agenda provides the most up-to-date statistics on poverty, hunger, education and sanitation, among others, so that the world can address urgent global challenges over the next 15 years. "The annual Sustainable Development Goals Report is an opportunity to review where the world stands at the start of this collective journey,” Assistant-Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affairs, Thomas Gass, told the press in New York. The report was officially launched on 19 July by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon at the ministerial meeting of the UN High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development. Yesterday AT 02:09 AM
- "See more posts on"Facebook